Better known as Voltaire, Arouet wrote and published in many literary and non-fictional genres. Although early in his career he was heavily influenced by Locke and Newton, and developed a fairly sophisticated philosophy of his own, for the latter part of his life he was appreciated more for his skill in managing his image and literary output (including ensuring that many a pirated edition of his works were widely and cheaply available) in addition to influencing both public opinion as well as governments. He was a true public relations shark. Some say he did less to advance philosophical thought in the 18th c. than he did to advance the cause of the Enlightenment through his efficiency in networking and publicity. Nevertheless, he is one of the great figures of the Enlightenment, and his influence and literature continue to be important today.
1721. Épitre à Uranie. digitized by Google Books. Expresses views hostile to Christianity. Published in Le poëte philosophe-chrétien, Frankfurt: Van Duren, 1765. *Changes name to Voltaire in this year. Poetry.
1723. La Ligue, ou, Henri le Grand. Digitized by Google Books. Published by Jean Mokpap (?), (Geneva), 1723. The preface by the publisher announces that “cette édition est faite sur un des manuscrits les plus corrects qui aient couru du poème de Monsieur de Voltaire,” referring to the fact that the poem had been circulating in manuscript form for some time before its printing in book form. Genre is epic poetry, later to be published as “La Henriade.”
1725. L’indiscret. Digitized by Gallica. 1725. Published by Noël Pissot et François Flahault, Paris. Comedy.
1727. Essay on epic poetry. No digital version located.
1727. An essay upon the civil wars of France, and also upon the epick poetry of the European nations from Homer down to Milton. Digitized by Google Books. 2nd ed., Printed for N. Prevost and Comp., Southampton, 1728. This is Voltaire’s first work written in English and published in England, while Voltaire was in exile. The work was later translated into French and published in France. The advertisement to the reader is at once self-critical and self-congratulatory: “It has the appearance of too great a presumption in a Traveller, who hath been but 18 months in England, to attempt to write in a Language, which he cannot pronounce at all, and which he hardly understands in Conversation…And I have not a mind to imitate the late M. Sorbieres, who having staid three months in this country without knowing anything either of its manners or of its language, thought fit to print a Relation which proved but a dull scurrilous satyr upon a Nation he knew nothing of.” Essay.
1728. La Henriade. Digitized by Google, available in the Internet Archive. 1730 edition published by Hierome Bold Truth à la Vérité, London. Poetry. Also available in English translation (Published in London for C. Davis, 1732). Much of this work was written while Voltaire was in prison in the Bastille, 1717-1718, and was started when Voltaire was only 19 years old. The preface speaks of the difficulties of prison life for Voltaire, who was only able to compose lines in verse, as he had no access to paper or writing instrument, and had to memorize the entire work. It also mentions that the first version of the poem was written as La Ligue and published in 1923 in an incomplete form.
1729. Voltaire’s letter in fluent English to Lord Bathurst, October 18, 1729, thanking him for his hospitality while Voltaire was in England. Digitized by the New York Public Library. Letter.
1729. Essai sur les guerres civiles de France. Tiré de plusieurs manuscrits curieux. Digitized by Google Books. “Traduit de l’Anglois par M. de Voltaire.” Published in the Hague by M. G. De Merville, 1729. Essay.
1729. Essai sur la poésie épique. Text provided by the Voltaire Foundation. Essay.
1730. Le Brutus. Digitized by Gallica. 1731 ed. Published by Josse, Paris. The dedication to “Mylord” Lord Bolingbrooke presents a sort of treatise on the French language in a manner of apology for having written what Voltaire calls an English story in the French language. He compares the English poet who has many liberties (being able to write in free verse, shorten words as necessary or even invent new words) to that of the French poet, “un esclave de la rime,” obliged to write in four rhyming lines what an English poet had the freedom to write in just one. The first act of this play was written in English while Voltaire was in exile in England. Tragic play.
1731. Histoire de Charles XII, Roi de Suède. Digitized by Google Books, available at the Internet Archive. 1739 edition, published in Amsterdam by Étienne Ledet. Tome I. (No second tome is available in this edition online) This 1807 French edition contains both. Digitized by Google Books and available at the Internet Archive. This is Voltaire’s first work of history. An English edition was published in Dublin in 1732, and later others were published in 1734 [s.l.] and 1760 [s.l.]. This English translation was published in Glasgow by Robert Urie, 1767. Digitized by Google Books.
1732. Zaïre. Digitized by Gallica. Published in Le théâtre de M. de Voltaire. [Tome 2]. Published by François-Canut Richoff (Amsterdam) in 1762-1763. The Epistle was dedicated to M. Falkener. Tragic play. An English play based on Voltaire’s was written and published in 1736 by Aron Hill. It is called Zara: a tragedy. Digitized by Google Books. Published in Bell’s British theatre, vol. XVII. London, 1797.
1733. Letters concerning the English nation. Digitized by Google Books. 2nd ed. London: C. Davis, 1741. The Preface states that these letters, written between 1728 and 1731, were not intended to be published as they constituted a personal correspondence between Voltaire and his friend, Mr. Thiriot. They include Voltaire’s impressions of the English, with letters regarding religion, religious freedom, government, commerce, and Sir Isaac Newton, among other subjects. A 1760 “new” edition was published in London for Davis and Reymers. Digitized by Google Books. A 2008 edition was recently published by Arc Manor and digitized by Google Books.
1733. Lettres écrites de Londres sur les Anglais et autres sujets. Digitized by Google Books. Published in Amsterdam by Jacques des Bordes, 1735.
1734. Lettres philosophiques. Digitized by Gallica. This edition published by E. Lucas, au Livre d’or (Amsterdam) in 1734. Letters. Lettres philosophiques were started in English and completed in French. They were first published in English translation as Letters concerning the English nation, see above. The French edition was published a year later with a false imprint. This work was condemned by the French parliament and forced Voltaire into hiding.
1734. The temple of taste. Digitized by Google Books. This was based on Le temple du goût (1731) Published in Select works of Voltaire, vol. II. Published in New York by Derby & Jackson, 1859. Poetry.
1736. Le mondain. Digitized by Gallica. This edition from: Recueil de pièces fugitives en prose et en vers par M. de Voltaire. Published in Paris, 1740. Poetry.
1736. L’enfant prodigue. Digitized by Gallica. This edition from: Chefs-d’oeuvre de Voltaire. Tome 5. Published by J.-P. Aillaud (Paris), 1822. Comedic Play. First performed on October 10, 1736. Text from the Voltaire Foundation. Preface to the 1738 ed.
1738. Éléments de la philosophie de Newton. Digitized by Gallica. This edition is from: Oeuvres de Voltaire ; 37-41, 44-45, 47, 50. Mélanges. T. 38. Published by Werdet et Lequien in Paris and Firmin Didot frères (Paris), 1829-1834. Philosophy.
1738-39. Discours en vers sur l’homme. Digitized by Gallica. This edition from: Recueil de pièces fugitives en prose et en vers par M. de Voltaire. Published in Paris, 1740. This work first appeared with the title Epîtres sur le bonheur, la liberté et l’envie. The English translation was published in 1738 as Epistles on happiness, liberty and envy. Published in London for J. Roberts, 1738. Digitized by Google Books.
1739. L’envieux. Text from the Voltaire Foundation. Comedic play.
1739. La prude. Digitized by This edition: Collection complète des Oeuvres de M. de Voltaire, Première édition. Tome dixième. Published by Cramer in Geneva, 1756. Comedic play.
1739. La vie de Molière. Digitized by Gallica. Precedes the Oeuvres complètes de Molière. Published by Furne (impr. de J. Claye), Paris, 1854. This was Voltaire’s sole strictly biographical essay.
1739. Réponse aux objections principales qu’on a faites en France contre la philosophie de Newton. Digitized by Google Books. Published in Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire avec notes, préfaces, avertissements. Tome XXV: Physique. Published in Paris by Armand-Aubrée, 1830. Text also available at the Voltaire Foundation site.
1740. L’Anti-Machiavel ou Examen du Prince de Machiavel. Tome premier. Although the examen itself was written by Frederic II, King of Prussia, Voltaire wrote the original preface and historical notes. Digitized by Google Books. This 4th edition was published in Amsterdam, 1747.
1741. Le fanatisme, ou, Mahomet le prophète. Digitized by Gallica. This edition published by Étienne Ledet (Amsterdam) in 1753. Tragic play. The English translation, Mahomet the impostor, was published in London in 1771 and digitized by Google Books.
1743. La Mérope française. Digitized by Gallica. Publisher: Prault fils, Paris, 1744. Tragic play. Translated into English and published in 1749 as Merope: a tragedy. This edition published in The Works of M. de Voltaire, vol. IV: dramatic works. Published in London, 1762. Digitized by Google Books.
*In 1744, Voltaire became the Royal Historiographer of France, a post that he would keep for only a few years.
1745. La bataille de Fontenoy. Digitized by Gallica. 3e éd. published by Prault père (Paris) and Claude de Saint (Chalon), 1745. Poetry.
1745. La princesse de Navarre. Digitized by Gallica. Published in Théâtre de Voltaire, Tome 5. Published by P. Didot l’aîné et F. Didot, Paris, 1801. Opera Libretto written in collaboration with the composer Jean-Philippe Rameau.
1746. La tragédie de Sémiramis. Digitized by Gallica. Published by P.-G. Le Mercier and Michel Lambert, Paris, 1749. Tragic play.
1733-1746. Lettres de M. de Voltaire et de sa célèbre amie la Mise Du Châtelet. T. 1; suivies d’un petit Poëme, d’une lettre de J. J. Rousseau, & d’un parallele entre Voltaire et J.-J. Rousseau. Published in Geneva by Cailleau, 1782. Digitized by Gallica.
1747. Memnon: histoire orientale. Digitized by Google Books. Published in London for “La compagnie,” 1748. This was the first version of what would become Zadig, see below.
1748. Zadig, ou la destinée, histoire orientale. Digitized by Google Books, 1749 ed. Philosophical fiction. This work is prefaced by a false official approval; a parody of those that protected authors and their works from censors. Zadig, the book of fate: an oriental history appeared in 1749. Digitized by Google Books. Published in London for Brindley, 1749.
1748. La femme qui a raison. Digitized by Gallica. Published in Oeuvres de M. de Voltaire, Tome IX. Published in Dresden by George Conrad Walther, 1770. Comedic play.
1748. Anecdotes sur Louis XIV. Digitized by Gallica. From Histoire littéraire de M. de Voltaire, Tome I. Published in Cassel by P. O. Hampe, 1780. History.
1748. Anecdotes sur le czar Pierre le Grand. Digitized by Gallica. From Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire Tome 24. Published by Hachette, 1876-1900. History. An English translation (by Alexander Gordon) was published in Aberdeen, 1755. Vol. I, Vol. II. Digitized by Google Books.
1748. Le monde comme il va: vision de Babouc. (possibly written in 1746). Digitized by Google Books. This version published in Les oeuvres de Voltaire, vol. 33. Published in Paris by Lefèvre, 1829. The English translation The world as it goes: the vision of Babouc was published in 1754. This edition, digitized by Google Books appeared in The works of M. de Voltaire, published in London, 1762.
1749. Memnon. Not to be confused with Memnon: histoire orientale (1747).
1750. Les Mensonges imprimez, par M. Arrouet de Voltaire, de l’Académie française. Digitized by Gallica. Published by la Compagnie des libraires (en Holland), 1750.
1750 ca. Rome sauvée. Digitized by Gallica. Published by Lambert in Paris, 1753. Tragic play.
1751. Le siècle de Louis XIV. Tome I. Tome II. Tome III. Digitized by Gallica. Published by Vve Knoch et J.G. Eslinger (Francfort), 1753. Alternative edition available: Tome I. Tome II. Digitized by Google Books. 3rd ed. Published in Dresden, Prussia, 1752. Siècle de Louis XIV. Digitized by Google Books. This later edition also includes the Précis du siècle de Louis XV. This version was published in Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire, Tome XV, Paris (Perronneau & Cerioux), 1818. An English translation was published in 1749 called Essay on the age of Lewis XIV. This is a digitized later edition called The age of Lewis XIV, to which is added an abstract from the Age of Lewis XV (vol 1). Published in London by Fielding & Walker, 1779. Digitized by Google Books. History.
1752. Rome sauvée: tragédie. Digitized by Google Books. This edition published in 1791.
1752 / 1753? Diatribe du docteur Akakia. (Full text provided by the Voltaire Foundation, in the Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire, Mélanges II, 1738 – 1753). Gallica digitized the edition published by Werdet et Lequien fils (Paris) and Firmin Didot frères (Paris) of 1829-1834. Satire.
1754. Essai sur l’histoire universelle. History.
1755 (Translation). The General history and state of Europe. Part I. Part II (From the time of Charlemain to Lewis IXV – published in Edinburgh by Sands, Donaldson, Murray & Cochran, 1758), Parts III & IV (From the Reign of Charles VII – to the Commencement of the Reign of the Emperor Charles V – published in London by Nourse, 1755). Digitized by Google Books. Read the account published in the Gentleman’s Magazine for March 1755.
1755 (Translation). The Orphan of China: A Tragedy. Digitized by Google Books. Published in Dublin by William Smith, 1756. Originally performed at Paris, on the 29th of August, 1755.
1756. Essai sur les moeurs et l’esprit des nations depuis Charlemagne jusqu’à nos jours. Text provided by the Voltaire Foundation via l’Université du Québec à Chicoutimi. (1962 ed., published by Éditions sociales, Paris). Or, digitized by Gallica: Tome I, Tome II, Tome III, Tome IV. Published by Werdet et Lequien in Paris, 1829. History.
1756. Poème sur le désastre de Lisbonne. Digitized by Gallica. This edition: Poèmes sur le désastre de Lisbonne, et sur la loi naturelle, avec des préfaces, des notes, etc. Nouvelle édition. Published by Cramer, (Genève) in 1756. Poetry, Philosophy. An English translation “Poem upon the destruction of Lisbon, or An inquiry into the Maxim Whatever is, is right,” is available (from The works of Voltaire, vol. XXXIII, translated by Smollet and Francklin and others, published in London 1764.)
1756. The history of the War of Seventeen hundred and forty one. In Two parts, 2nd ed. Digitized by Google Books. Published in London for Nourse, 1756.
1759. Candide, ou L’optimisme. Digitized by Gallica. This edition: 1759. “Traduit de l’allemand de M. le docteur Ralph.” Novel. An English translation by Voltaire (2nd ed.) is also available. Candid, or All for the best. Published in London by Nourse, 1759. Digitized by Google Books.
1759. Histoire d’un bon bramin. Text provided by the Voltaire Foundation. Originally published in 1759.
1759. Tancrède. Digitized by Google Books. Published in Naples by Jean Gravier, 1773. Tragic play.
1759. Socrate. Digitized by Gallica. Published in Oeuvres de M. de Voltaire Tome IX by George Conrad Walther in Dresden, 1770. (Note: “Traduit de l’anglais De Feu M Tompson.”) on title page. Play. This edition published in 1761 by Marc Michel Rey, Amsterdam, digitized by Google Books.
1760. Le caffe, ou, L’Écossaise. Digitized by Google Books. Published in Naples by Jean Gravier, 1777. (Note: “Par Mr. Hume, pretre ecossais. Traduite en français par Jerome Carré.”) An English translation followed closely behind the French, appearing as The coffee-house, or Fair Fugitive. Digitized by Google Books, published in London for Wilkie, 1760. Play in 5 acts.
1760. Réponse à l’Épître du diable, par M. de Voltaire. Digitized by Gallica. Published at Aux Délices, 1761.
1761-1777. Correspondance de Voltaire et du cardinal de Bernis, depuis 1761 jusqu’à 1777. Digitized by Gallica. Published in Paris by Dupont, 1799.
1762. Sermon des cinquante. Digitized by Gallica. Published in Geneva by Cramer, 1762. Title page reads, “On l’attribue à Mr. du Martaine, ou du Marsay, d’autres à la Métrie ; mais il est d’un grand Prince très instruit.” Biblical criticism.
1763. Don Pèdre, roi de Castille. Digitized by Gallica. Published 1775. Tragic play.
1763. Traité sur la tolérance. Digitized by Google Books. 1763 ed. Biblical criticism.
1763. Histoire de l’Empire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand. Digitized by Gallica. From Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire, Tome 15. Published in Paris by Hachette, 1896-1900. History.
1763. Les trois manières. Digitized by Gallica. From Oeuvres de Voltaire, Poésies. Tome XIV. Published in Paris by Firmin-Didot frères, 1833. Tale.
1763. Catéchisme de l’honnête homme. (Text provided by the Voltaire Foundation). Biblical criticism.
1764. Dictionnaire philosophique portatif. Digitized by Google Books. 1765 ed.
One of the more controversial works of his career, Voltaire did not sign this work so that he could deny authorship if necessary. Dictionary of philosophy. An English translation was published in 1765 in London by Thomas Brown. Digitized by Google Books. There is an index of terms that appeared in the dictionary, selected and translated by H.I. Woolf in 1924 (hosted by Hanover College Department of History).
1764. Lettre sur la nouvelle édition de Corneille. The published version of this letter is called Réflexions sur la noucelle édition de Corneillie, ou Réponse à la lettre apologétique de cet ouvrage. Published in Amsterdam, 1764. Digitized by Gallica.
1764. Voltaire was attributed commentary in Cesare Beccaria’s originally Italian essay, “Dei delitti e delle pene” (On Crimes and Punishment). In it, Beccaria argued against the death penalty. Digitized by Google Books. This 4th edition was published in London by Newbery in 1775.
1765. Adelaide du Guesclin. Digitized by Gallica. From: Chefs-d’oeuvre dramatiques: Tome Ier. Published in Paris by A. Égron, 1816. Tragic play.
1765. La philosophie de l’histoire. Digitized by Gallica. Published in Amsterdam by Changuion, 1765. Note that the title page indicates author “l’abbe Bazin.” Statement of Voltaire’s philosophy of history.
1766. Le philosophe ignorant. Digitized by Google Books, 1766 ed. Unsigned. Philosophy.
1766. Les questions de Zapata. Digitized by Google Books. Published in Leipzig, 1766. Title page reads, “Traduites par le sieur Tamponet Docteur de Sorbonne.” Note that Tamponet was one of the theologians responsible for the condemnation of Diderot’s Encyclopédie. Biblical critique in the form of 67 questions.
1766. Lettre au docteur Pansophe. Digitized by Google Books. Published in Les Oeuvres Complètes de Voltaire: Mélanges V. Published in Paris by Garnier frères, 1879.
1767. Charlot, ou la Comtesse de Givry. Digitized by Gallica. From: Nouveaux Mélanges philosophiques, historiques, critiques, etc. Part V. Published in Geneva by Cramer, 1767-1769. Play.
1767. Examen important de milord Bolingbroke, ou le Tombeau de fanatisme. Digitized by Gallica. This [10th ed.] published in London, 1776. The title page reads, “Ecrit sur la fin de 1736,” which of course predates the death of Bolingbroke by 15 years. Voltaire adopts the persona of his fellow writer and Anglican to criticize both Roman Catholicism and the Bible.
1767. Lettre de M. de Voltaire à M. Élie de Beaumont, avocat au Parlement, du 20 mars 1767. Digitized by Gallica.
1767-1769. Nouveaux mélanges philosophiques, historiques, critiques, etc. Digitized by Gallica and Google Books. Published by Cramer in Geneva. Partie 1. Partie 2. Partie 3. Partie 4. Partie 5. Partie 6. Partie 7. Partie 8. Partie 9. Partie 10. Partie 11. Partie 12. Partie 13. Partie 14. Partie 15. Partie 16. Partie 17. Partie 18. Partie 19. See the Table of Contents for details.
1768. Le Pyrrhonisme de l’histoire. Digitized by Gallica. From Oeuvres de Voltaire Mélanges, Tome 44. Published in Paris by Werdet et Lequien fils and Firmin Didot frères, 1829-1834. Note that the author is credited as “Un bachelier en théologie,” who goes on to say that “je fais gloire d’avoir les memes opinions que l’auteur de l’Essai des moeurs et l’esprit des nations…” History.
1769. Le dépositaire. Digitized by Gallica. From: Théâtre de Voltaire, Tome X. Published in Paris by Firmin Didot, 1801. Title page reads, “Jouée à la campagne en 1767.” Comedic play in five acts.
1769. Les lettres d’Amabed. Digitized by Gallica. Title page reads, “Traduites par l’Abbé Tamponet” with a footnote referring readers to the preface of Tome XIII in the Oeuvres de Voltaire. Published by Werdet et Lequien fils, Paris, 1829. Historical tale.
1769. Dîner du comte de Boulainvilliers. Digitized by Google Books. Published in Amsterdam by Marc Michel Rey, 1769. Title page reads, “Par M. St. Hiacinthe.” Tale.
1769. Dieu et les hommes. From: Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire, Tome 29. Published by L. Hachette in Paris, 1876-1900. Voltaire has assigned responsibility for this word in the following way, “Par le Docteur Obern, oeuvre théologique, mais raisonnable, traduite par Jacques Aimon, 1769.” Biblical criticism.
1770. Histoire du parlement de Paris. Digitized by Internet Archive. This 3rd ed. published in Amsterdam by Jean Jacques du Fay, 1770. Title page reads, “Par Mr. l’Abbé Big…”
1770-1772. Questions sur l’Encyclopédie. Vol. 1 ; Vol. 2 ; Vol. 3 ; Vol. 4 ; Vol. 5 ; Vol. 6 ; Vol. 7 ; Vol. 8 ; Vol. 9 (Volume 1 digitized by the Internet Archive, Volumes 2- 9 digitized by Gallica.)
1772. Monsieur de Voltaire peint par lui-même, ou Lettre de cet écrivain. Digitized by Google Books. Published in Lausanne by La Compagnie des Libraires, 1772. Letters.
1773 (Translation). Letters from M. Voltaire to several of his Friends. Digitized by Google Books. Translated by Francklin. 2nd ed. published in London by T. Davies, 1773. Letters.
1774. Le taureau blanc. Digitized by Google Books, 1774 ed. Published in Memphis. Title page reads, “Traduit du syriaque par Dom Calmet.” (Dom Calmet was a Benedictine scholar mocked by Voltaire.) Biblical criticism.
1774. Dialogue de Pégase et du veillard. Digitized by Google Books. Published in London by the Société Typographique, 1774.
1775. Histoire de Jenni, ou le Sage et l’Athée. Digitized by the Internet Archive. Published in London, 1775. Title page reads, “Par M. Sherloc. Traduit par M. de la Caille.”
1775. Don Pèdre, Roi de Castille: tragédie. Digitized by Google Books. In this edition we see an “Épitre dédicatoire à Monsieur d’Alembert … ” Tragedy.
1776. La Bible enfin expliquée. Digitized by Google Books. Tome II. Published in London, 1777. Title page reads, “Par plusieurs aumôniers de S.M.L.R.D.P.” Biblical criticism.
1777. Lettres sur l’origine des sciences et sur celle des peuples de l’Asie, adressées à M. de Voltaire. Although the majority of letters are written to Voltaire by Jean Sylvain Bailly, the volume begins with two letters to Bailly from Voltaire (written December 1775 and January 1776). Digitized by Google Books, available from the Hathi Trust collection. Published in London by Elmesly and in Paris by Les Frères Debure. This volume was followed, in 1779, by Lettres sur l’Atlantide de Platon et sur l’ancienne histoire de l’Asie Pour servir de suite aux lettres sur l’origine des sciences, addressées à M. de Voltaire. Similar to the 1777 collection of letters, this volume begins with a letter written by Voltaire (February 1777) but is mostly comprised of letters written by Bailly to Voltaire, and which Voltaire did not receive before dying.
1778. Prix de la justice et de l’humanité, par l’auteur de “La Henriade”, avec son portrait. Digitized by Gallica. “A Ferney,” 1778.
Date? Lettre du secrétaire de M. de Voltaire. Digitized by Gallica. Voltaire’s secretary wrote this letter on his behalf because he was by this time quite sick and nearly blind.
Posthumous publications, translations, correspondence and works inspired by Voltaire
1779 (Translation). The age of Louis XIV, to which is added an abstract of the Age of Louis XIV. Digitized by Google Books. Published in London for Fielding and Walker, 1779. History.
1781. (Correspondence to Voltaire, with some responses). Lettres de quelques Juifs portugais, allemands et polonois, à M. de Voltaire. Avec un petit commentaire extrait d’un plus grand. Compiled by Antoine Guénée. Digitized by Google Books and made available by Hathi Trust. 5th ed. corrected and augmented. Tome I (of three). Published in Paris by Moutard.
1784 (Translation). Memoirs of the life of Voltaire Written by Himself. Digitized by Google Books. Published in London by G. Robinson, 1784. Biography.
1790. The life of Voltaire translated by Jean Antoine Nicholas de Condorcet, to which are added Memoirs of Voltaire, written by himself. In two volumes. Vol. I. Vol. II. Digitized by Google Books. Published in London for G.G.J. and J. Robinson, 1790.
1791. La veuve Calas à Paris, ou, Le triomphe de Voltaire by J. B. Pujoulx. Digitized by Google in partnership with the Hathi Trust. Published in Paris by Brunet. This dramatic work was inspired by Voltaire’s dispute with the government regarding the execution of M. Jean Calas for having murdered his own son. M. Calas’ son wanted to convert to Catholicism from Protestantism. Voltaire’s campaign against the government in favour of religious freedom for French citizens began in 1762 and M. Calas’ conviction was finally overturned in 1765.
Image courtesy of the New York Public Library Digital Image Gallery.
Some notes for this section were drawn from:
Cronk, Nicholas. The Cambridge Companion to Voltaire. Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Digital images of sculptures depicting Voltaire are available from the link “Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741-1828)” from the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History (Metropolitan Museum of Art). Houdon was an eminent Enlightenment period sculptor.